Sedimentary rocks cover up to 75% of the Earth's surface, record much of the Earth's history, and harbor the fossil record.
Sedimentology is closely linked to stratigraphy, the study of the physical and temporal relationships between rock layers or strata.
Chronological Analysis of the Scriptures- Literal interpretation of the scriptures led some people to conclude that the Earth was created approximately 6,000 years old.
Can radiometric dating be used on sedimentary rocks
Carbon-14 has a relatively short half life of 5,730 years. Beyond 60,000 - 80,000 years, there is too little Carbon-14 left in the sample and this technique cannot be used.
U nuclei undergo fission and the nucleus splits to form two smaller but very energetic nuclei that move away from each other.
Kelvin knew that the Earth gets hotter with increasing depth (the geothermal gradient), and took this observation as evidence that the Earth is cooling off. Chamberlain challenged Kelvins assumption that the earth started as a molten body.
He believed the Earth started off as a molten mass and subsequently transformed to a hot solid mass during cooling. Instead, Chamberlain proposed a model of cold accretion for the Earth.
Folding in sediments is analysed with the principle of original horizontality, which states that sediments are deposited at their angle of repose which, for most types of sediment, is essentially horizontal.
Thus, when the younging direction is known, the rocks can be "unfolded" and interpreted according to the contained sedimentary information.
Sedimentological conditions are recorded within the sediments as they are laid down; the form of the sediments at present reflects the events of the past and all events which affect the sediments, from the source of the sedimentary material to the stresses enacted upon them after diagenesis are available for study.
The principle of superposition is critical to the interpretation of sedimentary sequences, and in older metamorphic terrains or fold and thrust belts where sediments are often intensely folded or deformed, recognising younging indicators or graded bedding is critical to interpretation of the sedimentary section and often the deformation and metamorphic structure of the region.
Mountains, erosion, and variations in climate were considered to be punishment for the sins committed by humanity.