By 2013, this had increased to 6.4 million.30 Although annual testing rates have nearly doubled since 2008/2009, there remains a significant disparity between men and women.
1 Roughly 36,000 people died from AIDS-related illnesses in the same year, although this figure is steadily declining from its total of 51,000 in 2010.
2The first case of HIV in Kenya was detected in 1984 and, by the mid-1990s, it was one of the major causes of mortality in the country, putting huge demands on the healthcare system as well as the economy.
In 2013, a group of Kenyan civil society organisations presented a report to the Committee Against Torture stating that people who are LGBT in Kenya face constant harassment, violence and death threats by police officials, who also blackmail them with threats of arrest if they refuse to pay bribes.12 In 2011, an estimated 18.3% of people who inject drugs (sometimes referred to as PWID) in Kenya were living with HIV.13The majority of people who inject drugs are concentrated in specific geographical areas such as Nairobi and Mombasa.14 Low condom use and unsafe injecting practices exacerbate transmission.15In 2012, Kenya introduced needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy to help reduce HIV transmission among people who inject drugs.16.
In 2016, 155 clean needs and syringes were distributed per person who injects drugs.17 In the same year, UNAIDS found nearly 90% had used a clean syringe last time they injected, compared to 51.6% in 2012.18 Sex workers have the highest reported HIV prevalence of any group in Kenya.
The 2014 Kenyan Demographic Health Survey (KDHS) found that only 54% of young women could correctly identify ways of preventing sexual transmission of HIV and rejecting misconceptions about HIV transmission, compared to 64% of young men.27 More than half (53%) of the 1.6 million people living with HIV in Kenya are unaware of their HIV status.
There are an estimated 260,000 couples in HIV sero-discordant couples (when one partner is HIV negative and one is positive).
KEY POINTS:• Kenya is one of the most affected countries by HIV in the world.• Kenya’s HIV epidemic affects most of its general population, but groups of men who have sex with men, women, sex workers and people who inject drugs are still most vulnerable to infection.• Kenya has proven to deliver successful HIV prevention programmes over the last couple of decades which have resulted in a dramatic decrease of new infections.
• Although awareness of HIV and AIDS is high in Kenya, many people living with HIV face high levels of stigma and discrimination which prevent people accessing HIV services.
The most recent statistics, from 2010, estimate HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men at 18.2%.8Condom use among men who have sex with men is fairly low but has been rising.