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An important theme in the is the use of immortals to illustrate various points.Did Zhuangzi believe some persons physically lived forever? Did Zhuangzi believe that our substance was eternal and only our form changed? It underlay all Chinese “science” of the classical period, although Daoists certainly made use of it.A good cook changes his knife once a year—because he cuts.

Chan and Legge were instrumental architects in the West of the view that Daoist philosophy (Actually, our interest in trying to separate philosophy and religion in Daoism is more revealing of the Western frame of reference we use than of Daoism itself.

As for a reasonable reconstruction of the textual tradition upon which Daoism is based, we should not try to think of this task so simply as determining the relationship between the In the late 1970s Western and comparative philosophers began to point out that an important dimension of the historical context of Daoism was being overlooked because the previous generation of scholars had ignored or even disparaged connections between the classical texts and Daoist religious belief and practice not previously thought to have developed until the 2 century C. We have to lay some of the responsibility for a prejudice against Daoism as a religion and the privileging of its earliest forms as a pure philosophy at the feet of the eminent translators and philosophers Wing-Tsit Chan and James Legge, who both spoke of Daoist religion as a degeneration of a pristine Daoist philosophy arising from the time of the Celestial Masters (see below) in the late Han period.

Instead, they have preferred to focus on understanding the nature of reality, increasing their longevity, ordering life morally, practicing rulership, and regulating consciousness and diet. E.) tried to organize the writings and ideas that represented the major intellectual alternatives available. The masters transmitted their teachings, some of them only to disciples and adepts, but gradually these teachings became more widely available as is evidenced in the very creation of the The anti-supernaturalist and anti-dualist agendas that provoked Westerners to separate philosophy and religion, dating at least to the classical Greek period of philosophy was not part of the preoccupation of Daoists. 22, 24) and they do not linger after their work is done (ch. Be that as it may, many of the aphorisms directed toward rulers in the DDJ seem puzzling at first sight.

Fundamental Daoist ideas and concerns include Strictly speaking there was no Daoism before the literati of the Han dynasty (c. The name : Yin-Yang, Confucian, Mohist, Legalist, School of Names, and Daoists. Accordingly, the question whether Daoism is a philosophy or a religion is not one we can ask without imposing a set of understandings, presuppositions, and qualifications that do not apply to Daoism. According to the DDJ, the proper ruler keeps the people without knowledge, (ch. However, it is a pity that the emperor used the DDJ’s admonitions to “fill the bellies and empty the minds” of the people to justify his program of destroying all books not related to medicine, astronomy or agriculture.

(Chinese title 後菜鳥的燦爛時代 which means Later Bloomer’s Glorious Era), telling the story of two rivals since childhood who reunite after their fates have switched.

Joanne was the successful student in school but finds herself failing at work in the real world, while perennial loser Aaron is now a successful CEO and swans back into Joanne’s life to become her boss.2) What is the best reconstruction of the classical textual tradition upon which later Daoism was based? The long standing tradition about the authorship of the text is that the “founder” of Daoism, known as Laozi gave it to Yin Xi, the guardian of the pass through the mountains that he used to go from China to the West (i.e., India) in some unknown date in the distant past. The DDJ says, “straightforward words seem paradoxical,” implying, however, that they are not (ch. What is the image of the ideal person, the sage () without deliberation or volitional challenge. They live naturally and free from desires rooted in the discriminations that human society makes (ch. The may actually contain materials from a teacher known as Zhuang Zhou who lived between 370-300 B. Although there are several versions of how the remainder of the may be divided, one that is gaining currency is Chs. 17-28 (Zhuang Zhou’s Disciples’ material), with the remains of the text attributable to the final redactor. The way to this state is not the result of a withdrawal from life.With regard to the first question, Isabelle Robinet thinks that the classical texts are only the most lasting evidence of a movement she associates with a set of writings and practices associated with the practiced techniques of longevity and used diet and meditative stillness anto create a way of life that attracted disciples and resulted in wisdom teachings.. But the text is actually a composite of collected materials, most of which probably originally circulated orally perhaps even in single aphorisms or small collections. Lau and Michael La Fargue had made preliminary literary and redaction critical studies of the texts, these are still insufficient to generate any consensus about whether the text was composed using smaller written collections or who were the probable editors. Its teachings on correlation often suggest to interpreters that the DDJ is filled with paradoxes. In this respect, they are like newborn infants, who move naturally, without planning and reliance on the structures given to them by culture and society (ch. The DDJ tells us that sages empty themselves, becoming void of the discriminations used in conventional language and culture. 37) They settle themselves and know how to be content (ch. The DDJ makes use of some very famous analogies to drive home its point. 8), finding their own place, overcoming the hard and strong by suppleness (ch. However, it does require disengaging or emptying oneself of conventional values and the demarcations made by society.To be sure, many Daoist in history took them literally and an entire tradition of the transcendents or immortals () was collected in text and lore.Zhuangzi is drawing on a set of beliefs about master teachers that were probably regarded as literal by many, although some think he meant these to be taken metaphorically.So, Daoism was a retroactive grouping of ideas and writings which were already at least one to two centuries old, and which may or may not have been ancestral to various post-classical religious movements, all self-identified as , but accepts contemporary Daoists' assertion of continuity between classical and post-classical, "philosophical" and "religious" movements and texts. But the hybrid nature of Daoism is not a reason to discount the importance of Daoist thought. 65), fills their bellies, opens their hearts and empties them of desires (ch. A sagely ruler reduces the size of the state and keeps the population small. The ruler is a shadowy presence, never standing out (chs. When the ruler’s work is done, the people say they are content (ch. This picture of rulership in the DDJ is all the more interesting when we remember that the philosopher and legalist political theorist named Han Feizi used the DDJ as a guide for the unification of China. When the DDJ says that rulers keep the people without knowledge, it probably means that they do not encourage human knowledge as the highest form of knowing but rather they encourage the people to “obtain oneness with the .


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  3. Department of Physiology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran Correspondence should be addressed to Shahrokh Amiri Received 21 August 2016; Revised 18 November 2016; Accepted 19 January 2017; Published 9 February 2017 Academic Editor: Diane Ruge Copyright © 2017 Arash Mohagheghi et al.

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